Alzheimer disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive dysfunction. The disease incidence has growing tendency worldwide with strong impact on healthcare funds. The fact that there is no effective therapy makes the disorder more serious. Currently, AD manifestation can be suppressed by having impact on enzyme acetylcholinesterase: donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine or ionotropic glutamate NMDA receptor ( memanitine). Contrary to the drugs effecting symptomatically, vaccination against amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles and their precursors amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylated tau are expected to be more suitable. Huge numbers of works have been done on the issue. Unfortunately, the promising vaccines like the AN 1792 were halted during clinical trials because of adverse effects like meningoencephalitis. Monoclonal antibody specific to amyloid plaques, Bapineuzumab, was closest to the practical performance but the clinical trials were also stopped. The review summarizes facts about AD, opportunities in AD vaccination, and obstacles that limit the vaccination including reasons why the recent trials have fallen.