The indication for antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) after kidney transplantation (KT) remains controversial. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 112 KT recipients that developed one episode or more of AB beyond the second month after transplantation were included in this open-label trial. Participants were randomized (1:1 ratio) to the treatment group (systematic antimicrobial therapy for all episodes of AB occurring ≤24 mo after transplantation [53 patients]) or control group (no antimicrobial therapy [59 patients]). Systematic screening for AB was performed similarly in both groups. The primary outcome was the occurrence of acute pyelonephritis at 24-mo follow-up. Secondary outcomes included lower urinary tract infection, acute rejection, Clostridium difficile infection, colonization or infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria, graft function and all-cause mortality. There were no differences in the primary outcome in the intention-to-treat population (7.5% [4 of 53] in the treatment group vs. 8.4% [5 of 59] in the control group; odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-3.47) or the per-protocol population (3.8% [1 of 26] in the treatment group vs. 8.0% [4 of 50] in the control group; OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.05-4.34). Moreover, we found no differences in any of the secondary outcomes. In conclusion, systematic screening and treatment of AB beyond the second month after transplantation provided no apparent benefit among KT recipients (NCT02373085).
Keywords: antibiotic prophylaxis; bacterial; clinical decision-making; clinical research/practice; clinical trial; complication: infectious; infection and infectious agents; infectious disease; kidney transplantation/nephrology.
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