Advances and Highlights in Mechanisms of Allergic Disease in 2015

J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jun;137(6):1681-1696. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.02.010. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Abstract

This review highlights some of the advances in mechanisms of allergic disease, particularly anaphylaxis, including food allergy, drug hypersensitivity, atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic conjunctivitis, and airway diseases. During the last year, a mechanistic advance in food allergy was achieved by focusing on mechanisms of allergen sensitization. Novel biomarkers and treatment for mastocytosis were presented in several studies. Novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis showed that promising supplementation of the infant's diet in the first year of life with immunoactive prebiotics might have a preventive role against early development of AD and that therapeutic approaches to treat AD in children might be best directed to the correction of a TH2/TH1 imbalance. Several studies were published emphasizing the role of the epithelial barrier in patients with allergic diseases. An impaired skin barrier as a cause for sensitization to food allergens in children and its relationship to filaggrin mutations has been an important development. Numerous studies presented new approaches for improvement of epithelial barrier function and novel biologicals used in the treatment of inflammatory skin and eosinophilic diseases. In addition, novel transcription factors and signaling molecules that can develop as new possible therapeutic targets have been reported.

Keywords: Anaphylaxis; allergen immunotherapy; asthma; atopic dermatitis; eosinophilia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allergens / administration & dosage
  • Allergens / immunology
  • Anaphylaxis / diagnosis
  • Anaphylaxis / epidemiology
  • Anaphylaxis / etiology
  • Anaphylaxis / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic / etiology
  • Conjunctivitis, Allergic / metabolism
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / etiology
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / metabolism
  • Desensitization, Immunologic
  • Food Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Food Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Food Hypersensitivity / etiology
  • Food Hypersensitivity / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Hypersensitivity / etiology*
  • Hypersensitivity / metabolism*
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Immunocompromised Host / genetics
  • Immunocompromised Host / immunology
  • Mastocytosis / etiology
  • Mastocytosis / metabolism

Substances

  • Allergens