Development and Characterization of the Paclitaxel loaded Riboflavin and Thiamine Conjugated Carbon Nanotubes for Cancer Treatment

Pharm Res. 2016 Jul;33(7):1769-81. doi: 10.1007/s11095-016-1916-2. Epub 2016 Apr 18.


Purpose: In the present investigation, we prepared and evaluated the paclitaxel loaded riboflavin and thiamine conjugated multi walled carbon nanotubes (PTX-Rf-MWCNTs and PTX-Tm-MWCNTs) for targeted delivery to cancer employing MCF-7 cancer cell lines.

Methods: The developed conjugates were characterized using FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, electron microscopy drug loading, release, stability, hemolytic, ex vivo and in vivo studies etc.

Results: The percent entrapment efficiency was found to be 87.92 ± 0.48 and 82.75 ± 0.47% of PTX-Tm-MWCNTs, PTX-Rf-MWCNTs, respectively. The percent hemolysis of purified MWCNTs, PTX-MWCNTs, PTX-Tm-MWCNTs and PTX-Rf-MWCNTs was found to be 20.49 ± 0.97, 37.39 ± 0.78, 14.61 ± 0.84 and 11.17 ± 0.77% respectively. The PTX-Tm-MWCNTs and PTX-Rf-MWCNTs showed more cytotoxic effect as compared to PTX and PTX-MWCNTs with PTX-Rf-MWCNTs exhibiting the maximum cytotoxic potential.

Conclusion: Thus in final outcome, we concluded that the riboflavin and thiamine conjugated MWCNTs shown great promising potential in the treatment of cancer, but more exhaustive data is needed in future.

Keywords: MCF-7 breast cancer cell line; carbon nanotubes; paclitaxel; riboflavin; thiamine; vitamins.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Drug Carriers / chemistry
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods
  • Humans
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Nanotubes, Carbon / chemistry*
  • Paclitaxel / chemistry*
  • Paclitaxel / pharmacology*
  • Riboflavin / chemistry*
  • Riboflavin / pharmacology*
  • Thiamine / chemistry*
  • Thiamine / pharmacology*


  • Drug Carriers
  • Nanotubes, Carbon
  • Paclitaxel
  • Riboflavin
  • Thiamine