Torquetenovirus: the human virome from bench to bedside

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Jul;22(7):589-93. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.04.007. Epub 2016 Apr 16.


Torquetenovirus (TTV) is the most abundant component of human virome. Virologists have long ignored this orphan and highly divergent virus, in part because TTV cannot be cultured and because it lacks serology reagents and animal models. Nevertheless, it is almost endemic worldwide and is insensitive to current antiviral drugs, so its monitoring is useful in various conditions. To date, TTV as a marker has proved useful in at least two circumstances: to identify anthropogenic pollution and to assess functional immune competence in immunosuppressed individuals. This review summarizes recent findings about TTV and discusses the main hurdles in translating them into clinical diagnostics.

Keywords: Maintenance immunosuppression; Opportunistic infections; Solid organ transplantation; TTV; Virome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • DNA Virus Infections / virology*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host*
  • Microbiota*
  • Torque teno virus / isolation & purification*