SIAD: practical recommendations for diagnosis and management

J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Sep;39(9):991-1001. doi: 10.1007/s40618-016-0463-3. Epub 2016 Apr 19.


Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disturbance encountered in hospitalized patients, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is the most frequent underlying disorder. There is a well-recognized relationship between hyponatremia and increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to provide appropriate treatment is critical to improve the clinical outcome related to SIAD-hyponatremia. There have been important advances in the treatment of SIAD over the last decade, leading to the publication of several clinical guidelines. In particular, the introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists provides a potent pharmacological tool to target the underlying pathophysiology of SIAD. The evidence base recommendations of the available therapies for SIAD are discussed in this study. Fluid restriction is considered the first-line therapy by the recent published guidelines, but it is certainly ineffective or unfeasible in many patients with SIAD. We discuss a number of relevant points to the use of fluid restriction in this study, including the lack of good evidence-based recommendations to support its use. Conversely, the clinical efficacy of oral tolvaptan in SIAD supported by good quality randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trials. However, the cost of the therapy and the need for long-term safety data may limit its widespread use. Finally, new recommendations for the management of acute hyponatremia with a focus on the use of bolus therapy with 3 % hypertonic sodium chloride are described in this study.

Keywords: Hyponatremia; SIAD; SIADH; Tolvaptan; Vaptans.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Management
  • Humans
  • Hyponatremia / diagnosis*
  • Hyponatremia / therapy*
  • Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / therapy*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards*