An optimized capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous analysis of biomass degradation products in ionic liquid containing samples

J Chromatogr A. 2016 May 20;1447:141-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.04.027. Epub 2016 Apr 13.


An indirect capillary electrophoresis method for a quantitative determination of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides was developed to investigate biomass degradation, the isomerization of glucose into fructose and conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in ionic liquids (ILs). Three chromophores, namely 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC), maleic acid and phthalic acid, were used to perform indirect detection. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) was reversed to reduce analysis time, using 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C14MImCl). The simultaneous separation of the underivatized mono-, di- and oligosaccharides was performed using four cellodextrin oligomers (cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, cellohexaose), eight carbohydrates (xylose, fructose, glucose, galactose, lactose, cellobiose, raffinose, sucrose), two organic acids (acetic acid, levulinic acid) and 5-HMF. The best performance was obtained using background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 138.2mM NaOH, 40mM maleic acid and 5mMC14MImCl, the applied voltage was -21.7kV. The linear ranges for analyzed compounds were following: organic acids, raffinose and sucrose from 0.20 to 7mM, cellodextrin oligomers from 0.25 to 5mM, other analyzed carbohydrates from 0.25 to 7mM and 5-HMF from 0.05 to 7mM. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of peak areas varied from 3.47 to 9.62% during a 5-day analysis period and 0.58-5.29% during one day.

Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis; Carbohydrates; Cellulose; Ionic liquids.

MeSH terms

  • Biomass*
  • Cellulose / analogs & derivatives
  • Cellulose / chemistry
  • Dextrins / chemistry
  • Electrolytes
  • Electrophoresis, Capillary / methods
  • Fructose / chemistry
  • Glucose / chemistry
  • Ionic Liquids / chemistry*
  • Isomerism
  • Oligosaccharides / analysis*


  • Dextrins
  • Electrolytes
  • Ionic Liquids
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Fructose
  • Cellulose
  • cellodextrin
  • Glucose