Immune-Mediated Complications After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016 Aug;22(8):1368-1375. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.04.005. Epub 2016 Apr 14.


Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has an integral role in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Long-term complications after HSCT have been well established and include graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), conditioning regimen-related toxicities, disease relapse, and infections. Immune-mediated phenomena are increasingly described after HSCT with clinically significant sequelae. Diagnosis is challenging because of features that overlap with other commonly reported post-transplantation complications. Patients who experience immune-mediated disease after HSCT tend to have poor outcomes. Early recognition of immune-mediated complications is imperative to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality. This review looks at the currently available literature on pathogenesis, incidence, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes of immune-mediated disease (other than GVHD) after HSCT.

Keywords: Hematopoietic cell transplantation; Immune complications; Late effects; Survivorship.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoimmune Diseases / chemically induced
  • Autoimmune Diseases / therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression / adverse effects
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Transplantation Immunology*