Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Lab Anim (NY). 2016 May;45(5):180-6. doi: 10.1038/laban.997.


The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylic Resins / adverse effects
  • Animals
  • Craniotomy / adverse effects
  • Dental Cements / adverse effects
  • Implants, Experimental / adverse effects*
  • Implants, Experimental / microbiology
  • Macaca mulatta / surgery*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Monkey Diseases / microbiology
  • Monkey Diseases / prevention & control
  • Neurophysiology / instrumentation
  • Neurophysiology / methods
  • Postoperative Complications / veterinary
  • Skull / surgery*
  • Surgical Wound Infection / microbiology
  • Surgical Wound Infection / prevention & control
  • Surgical Wound Infection / veterinary
  • Wound Healing


  • Acrylic Resins
  • Dental Cements