Despite the benefits of positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment, rates of adherence to treatment are suboptimal. This proof-of-concept study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical significance of an adaptive treatment strategy to improve adherence to PAP. All participants first completed a brief educational intervention. Those who did not show at least a 25% increase in PAP use were randomized to receive a second, more intensive intervention, either motivational enhancement treatment or self-management treatment. Results suggested adequate feasibility and acceptability. In addition, participants demonstrated significant increases in objective PAP use, improvements in sleep quality, and decreases in daytime sleepiness. This study represents a first step in the development and validation of an adaptive treatment strategy to improve PAP adherence.