Effect of energy intake on nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis patients

Kidney Int. 1989 Feb;35(2):704-11. doi: 10.1038/ki.1989.42.


Although maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are often wasted, little is known about their dietary energy needs. We studied four men and two women in a clinical research center while they received diets providing 45, 35 and 25 kcal/kg desirable body weight/day; diets were fed, in random order, for 21 to 23 days each. Protein intake, 1.13 +/- 0.02 (SEM) g protein/kg/day, was similar with all three diets. Body weight rose with 45 and 35 kcal/kg/day (P less than 0.05) and fell with 25 kcal/kg/day (P less than 0.05). Nitrogen balance, adjusted for estimated unmeasured losses, was neutral with 45 and 35 kcal/kg/day and negative with 25 kcal/kg/day. Balance was neutral or positive in 6 of 6, 4 of 6, and 0 of 6 patients fed 45, 35, 25 kcal/kg/day, respectively. Nitrogen balance, many plasma amino acids and changes in body weight, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle area and body fat each correlated with energy intake. Resting energy expenditure was normal. The energy intake estimated from regression equations to maintain neutral nitrogen balance was 38.5 kcal/kg desirable weight/day; for body fat and weight, it was 32 kcal/kg/day. These data suggest that MHD patients have normal energy expenditure and approximately normal requirements for maintenance of protein balance, body weight and body fat. An average energy intake of about 38 kcal/kg desirable weight/day may be necessary to maintain nitrogen balance in these patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Weight
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake*
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / metabolism
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitrogen / metabolism
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Renal Dialysis*


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Nitrogen