Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase (XET/H) gene is expressed during the seed germination in Podophyllum hexandrum: a high altitude Himalayan plant

Planta. 2016 Aug;244(2):505-15. doi: 10.1007/s00425-016-2520-8. Epub 2016 Apr 20.


Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase ( Ph XET/H) regulates Podophyllum seed germination via GA mediated up-accumulation of Ph XET protein and subsequent endosperm weakening. Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase (XET/H) belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 16, which play an important role in endosperm weakening and embryonic expansion during seed germination. Podophyllum hexandrum is a high altitude medicinal plant exploited for its etoposides which are potential anticancer compounds. During seed germination in Podophyllum, accumulation of XET/H transcripts was recorded. This data confirmed its possible role in determining the fate of seed for germination. Full length cDNA of a membrane bound XET/H (here onwards PhXET) was cloned from the germinating seeds of Podophyllum. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed PhXET with an open reading frame of 720 bp encoding a protein of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 28 kDa and pI of 7.58. In silico structure prediction of PhXET showed homology with that of Populus tremula (1UN1). PhXET was predicted to have a potential GPI-anchor domain and was located in plasma membrane. It was found that the exogenously applied phytohormones (GA and ABA) regulate the expression of PhXET. The obtained data showed that the PhXET regulates seed germination in Podophyllum by supplementing its activity along with other endosperm weakening and embryo expansion genes.

Keywords: Cell wall hydrolases; Podophyllum; Seed germination proteins; XET/H; Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase.

MeSH terms

  • Abscisic Acid / pharmacology
  • Altitude
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Germination / drug effects
  • Germination / genetics
  • Gibberellins / metabolism
  • Gibberellins / pharmacology
  • Glycosyltransferases / analysis
  • Glycosyltransferases / genetics
  • Glycosyltransferases / physiology*
  • Plant Growth Regulators / pharmacology
  • Plant Proteins / analysis
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / physiology*
  • Podophyllum / drug effects
  • Podophyllum / enzymology
  • Podophyllum / genetics*
  • Podophyllum / growth & development
  • Seeds / drug effects
  • Seeds / enzymology
  • Seeds / genetics
  • Seeds / growth & development
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein
  • Signal Transduction / genetics


  • Gibberellins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Plant Proteins
  • Abscisic Acid
  • gibberellic acid
  • Glycosyltransferases
  • xyloglucan - xyloglucosyltransferase