Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits

Environ Monit Assess. 2016 May;188(5):301. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5294-3. Epub 2016 Apr 20.


Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid; Cyanidin-3-glucoside; Detoxification; Ozonation; Pesticides; Polyphenols.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / metabolism*
  • Ascorbic Acid / metabolism*
  • Chlorpyrifos / analysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Coumaric Acids
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Glucosides / metabolism*
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Malus / metabolism
  • Ozone / chemistry*
  • Pesticide Residues / analysis*
  • Pesticides / analysis
  • Polyphenols / metabolism*
  • Propionates
  • Pyrethrins
  • Quercetin / analogs & derivatives


  • Anthocyanins
  • Coumaric Acids
  • Glucosides
  • Pesticide Residues
  • Pesticides
  • Polyphenols
  • Propionates
  • Pyrethrins
  • cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside
  • isoquercitrin
  • cypermethrin
  • Ozone
  • Quercetin
  • p-coumaric acid
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • Ascorbic Acid