Lean Seafood Intake Reduces Postprandial C-peptide and Lactate Concentrations in Healthy Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial with a Crossover Design

J Nutr. 2016 May;146(5):1027-34. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.229278. Epub 2016 Apr 20.


Background: Recently we showed that lean seafood consumption reduced circulating triacylglycerol (TG) and VLDL concentrations and prevented an elevated total-to-HDL-cholesterol ratio relative to intake of a nonseafood diet.

Objective: We aimed to elucidate whether diet-induced altered carbohydrate metabolism could be a contributing factor to the previously observed different lipoprotein patterns.

Methods: This was a secondary outcome and explorative randomized controlled trial with a crossover design in 20 healthy adults (7 men and 13 women) that were 50.6 ± 3.4 (mean ± SEM) y old, weighed 75.7 ± 2.5 kg, and had a body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)) of 25.6 ± 0.7. After a 3-wk run-in period and separated by a 5-wk wash-out period, the participants consumed 2 balanced diets [in percentage of energy (energy%); 29% fat, 52% carbohydrates, 19% protein] for 4 wk. The diets varied in the main protein sources; 60 energy% of total protein was from either lean seafood or nonseafood sources. On the first and last day of each diet period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected before and after consumption of test meals (in energy%; 28% fat, 52% carbohydrates, 20% protein) with cod or lean beef.

Results: The diets did not alter serum insulin and glucose concentrations. However, relative to the nonseafood diet period, the lean seafood diet period reduced postprandial C-peptide (P = 0.04) and lactate (P = 0.012) concentrations and fasting and postprandial TG/HDL-cholesterol ratios (P = 0.002). Hence, different postprandial lactate levels occurred at equal glucose concentrations.

Conclusions: Even though the diets did not alter serum insulin and glucose concentrations, intake of the lean seafood compared with the nonseafood diet reduced postprandial concentrations of C-peptide and lactate and the TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio in healthy adults in a manner that may affect the long-term development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01708681.

Keywords: dietary protein sources; glucose metabolism; insulin sensitivity; lactate; lean seafood; postprandial; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • C-Peptide / metabolism*
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / blood
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology
  • Energy Intake
  • Fasting
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Lactic Acid / blood*
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postprandial Period
  • Seafood*
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • C-Peptide
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Lipids
  • Triglycerides
  • Lactic Acid

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01708681