The isolation of mutants of Streptomyces rimosus which were blocked in oxytetracycline (OTC) production was described previously. The genes for the early steps of antibiotic biosynthesis mapped together. Genomic DNA fragments of S. rimosus which conferred resistance to OTC and complemented all of these non-producing mutants have been cloned. The cloned DNA is physically linked within approximately 30 kb of the genome of S. rimosus. The gene cluster is flanked at each end by a resistance gene each of which, independently, can confer resistance to the antibiotic. In OTC-sensitive strains of S. rimosus, the entire gene cluster including both resistance genes has been deleted. Complementation of blocked mutants by cloned DNA fragments in multi-copy vectors was often masked by a secondary effect of switching off antibiotic production in strains otherwise competent to produce OTC. This adverse effect on OTC production was not observed with recombinants using low copy-number vectors.