Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment

Sci Total Environ. 2016 Aug 1;560-561:274-83. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.026. Epub 2016 Apr 19.


The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue.

Keywords: Carbon footprint; Environmental sustainability; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Water footprint; Wine industry.

MeSH terms

  • Carbon Footprint
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Glass*
  • Waste Products / analysis*


  • Waste Products