Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 May;36(5):464-77.
doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.12.016. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

High Compliance With Dietary Recommendations in a Cohort of Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford Study

Affiliations
Free PMC article

High Compliance With Dietary Recommendations in a Cohort of Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans: Results From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford Study

Jakub G Sobiecki et al. Nutr Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk.

Keywords: Cross-sectional study; Nutrients; Nutrition assessment; Risk assessment; Vegan; Vegetarian.

Figures

Figure
Figure
Flowchart for participant selection in the study.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 30 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization . Joint FAO/WHO Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. FAO/WHO; Geneva: 2004. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition.
    1. United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion . USDA; Washington, D.C.: 2010. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010: executive summary. [ http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/sites/default/files/dietary_guidelines_for_americans/ExecSumm.pdf. Accessed 5 August 2015]
    1. Huang T., Yang B., Zheng J., Li G., Wahlqvist M.L., Li D. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60:233–240. - PubMed
    1. Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., Key T.J. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:597–603. - PubMed
    1. Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Allen N.E., Key T.J. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians. BMJ. 2011;343:d4131. - PMC - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

Feedback