Three healthy adult males developed acute renal failure following cocaine abuse. Muscle pain, tenderness, elevated levels of serum muscle enzymes, heme-positive urine and the presence of pigmented granular casts in urine all indicated occurrence of rhabdomyolysis. One of them developed acute compartmental syndrome of the left leg and required emergency fasciotomy. The course of renal failure and fast recovery were suggestive of acute tubular necrosis in all 3 patients. A possible role of cocaine in the aggravation of renal and/or muscle ischemia has been speculated.