Effect of Fat Type in Baked Bread on Amylose-Lipid Complex Formation and Glycaemic Response

Br J Nutr. 2016 Jun;115(12):2122-9. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516001458. Epub 2016 Apr 22.


The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (P<0·05), postprandial β-cell function did not differ significantly. The complexing index (CI), a measure of ALC formation, was significantly higher for COC and OLV compared with BTR and GRP (P<0·05). CI was significantly negatively correlated with incremental AUC (IAUC) of change in blood glucose concentrations over time (IAUCglucose) (r -0·365, P=0·001). Linear regression analysis showed that CI explained 13·3 % of the variance and was a significant predictor of IAUCglucose (β=-1·265, P=0·001), but IAUCinsulin did not predict IAUCglucose. Our study indicated that a simple way to modulate glycaemic response in bread could lie in the choice of fats/oils, with coconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response.

Keywords: ALC amylose–lipid complexes; Amylose–lipid complex; BTR breads baked with butter; Breads; CI complexing index; COC breads baked with coconut oil; CTR control bread without any added fats; Dietary fats; GR glycaemic response; GRP breads baked with grapeseed oil; Glycaemic response; IAUCglucose incremental AUC of change in blood glucose concentrations over time; IAUCinsulin incremental AUC of change in plasma insulin concentrations over time; IGI insulinogenic index; IGR insulin:glucose ratio; IR insulinaemic response; OLV breads baked with olive oil.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amylose / chemistry*
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Bread*
  • Butter
  • Coconut Oil
  • Cocos / chemistry
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology*
  • Fatty Acids / chemistry*
  • Fatty Acids / pharmacology
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells
  • Male
  • Olea / chemistry
  • Olive Oil / chemistry
  • Olive Oil / pharmacology
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Vitis / chemistry


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids
  • Insulin
  • Olive Oil
  • Plant Oils
  • Butter
  • Amylose
  • Coconut Oil