Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Three Fagopyrum Buckwheats

Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Apr 19;17(4):589. doi: 10.3390/ijms17040589.


The genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae), currently comprising 15 species of plants, includes three important buckwheat species: Fagopyrum esculentum (F. esculentum) Moench. (common buckwheat), Fagopyrum tataricum (F. tataricum) (L.) Gaertn. (tartary buckwheat) and Fagopyrum dibotrys (F. dibotrys) (D. Don) Hara. (perennial buckwheat), which have been well explored due to their long tradition of both edible and medicinal use. This review aimed to present an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the three Fagopyrum buckwheats. In addition, the scope for future research was also discussed. All available references included in this paper were compiled from major databases, such as MEDLINE, Pubmed, Scholar, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and CNKI. A total of 106 compounds isolated from three Fagopyrum buckwheats can be mainly divided into six classes: flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were considered to be the major active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have validated that Fagopyrum buckwheats possess antitumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic activities, etc. All reported data lead us to conclude that Fagopyrum buckwheats have convincing medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to explore its bioactive constituents, the relationship to their structural activities and the molecular mechanisms of action.

Keywords: Fagopyrum; buckwheat; pharmacology; phytochemistry.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Allergic Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Allergic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Allergic Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Fagopyrum / chemistry*
  • Fatigue / drug therapy
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry*
  • Phytochemicals / isolation & purification
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology
  • Protective Agents / chemistry
  • Protective Agents / isolation & purification
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology


  • Anti-Allergic Agents
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Antioxidants
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Phytochemicals
  • Protective Agents