A Toxicological Framework for the Prioritization of Children's Safe Product Act Data

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Apr 19;13(4):431. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13040431.


In response to concerns over hazardous chemicals in children's products, Washington State passed the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA). CSPA requires manufacturers to report the concentration of 66 chemicals in children's products. We describe a framework for the toxicological prioritization of the ten chemical groups most frequently reported under CSPA. The framework scores lifestage, exposure duration, primary, secondary and tertiary exposure routes, toxicokinetics and chemical properties to calculate an exposure score. Four toxicological endpoints were assessed based on curated national and international databases: reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. A total priority index was calculated from the product of the toxicity and exposure scores. The three highest priority chemicals were formaldehyde, dibutyl phthalate and styrene. Elements of the framework were compared to existing prioritization tools, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ExpoCast and Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi). The CSPA framework allowed us to examine toxicity and exposure pathways in a lifestage-specific manner, providing a relatively high throughput approach to prioritizing hazardous chemicals found in children's products.

Keywords: ExpoCast; ToxCast; chemical prioritization; children’s health; consumer products.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Consumer Product Safety*
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity
  • Hazardous Substances / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Manufacturing Industry / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Play and Playthings*
  • Risk Assessment
  • United States / epidemiology
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency
  • Washington


  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Hazardous Substances