A Pilot Study: Dietary Energy Density is Similar between Active Women with and without Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction

Nutrients. 2016 Apr 19;8(4):230. doi: 10.3390/nu8040230.


Low energy availability (EA) (e.g., insufficient energy intake (EI) to match energy needs, including exercise energy expenditure) has been identified as a primary contributor to exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) in active women. For health reasons, active women may self-select diets lower in energy density (ED, kcal/g), which can inadvertently contribute to inadequate EI. Using data from two studies, we compared the ED of active women with ExMD (n = 9; 24 ± 6 years) to eumenorrheic (EU) active controls (EU: n = 18, 27 ± 6 years). ED was calculated from 6 to 7 days weighted food records using two methods: with/without beverages. ANOVA and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum were used to test group differences. ED was not different between groups, but there was a trend toward a lower median ED (10%) (p = 0.049 unadjusted; p = 0.098 adjusted) in the ExMD-group (Method 1-all beverages: ExMD = 1.01 kcal/g (range = 0.52-1.41), EU = 1.22 kcal/g (range = 0.72-1.72); Method 2-without beverages: ExMD = 1.51 kcal/g (range = 1.26-2.06), EU = 1.69 kcal/g (range = 1.42-2.54)). This lower ED represents a 9% decrease (~219 kcal/day) in EI (ExMD = 2237 ± 378 kcal/day; EU = 2456 ± 470 kcal/day; p > 0.05). EI and macro/micronutrient intakes were similar for groups. In the ExMD-group, low ED could contribute to lower EI and EA. Future research should examine the interaction of ED and exercise on appetite, EI, and EA in active women, especially those with ExMD.

Keywords: amenorrhea; energy availability; energy balance; exercise energy expenditure; female athletes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diet*
  • Eating
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Food / classification
  • Food Analysis*
  • Humans
  • Menstruation Disturbances / etiology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Young Adult