Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Nutrients. 2016 Apr 20;8(4):217. doi: 10.3390/nu8040217.


The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m². The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.80), cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93), vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.69), vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.92), vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21-0.70), potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.97) and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.76) had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03-2.61), subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; micronutrients; minerals; vitamins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / metabolism
  • Micronutrients / pharmacology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Risk Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Lipids
  • Micronutrients