Pertussis is a resurgent infection that can cause significant morbidity among adults. CD4 T cells are necessary for its clearance, but pertussis studies in HIV-infected adults are limited to case reports. We analyzed stored serum samples from 299 HIV-infected adults to determine the seroprevalence of pertussis among this population. We found that 4.3% of subjects had serologic evidence of recent pertussis infection, and annual incidence of pertussis infection among subjects not vaccinated against pertussis in the last 5 years was 10.5%-17.5%. Prospective studies are needed to define the clinical presentation of pertussis in HIV-infected adults and to optimize vaccination strategies.