The Incidence of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neuroepidemiology. 2016;46(4):292-300. doi: 10.1159/000445751. Epub 2016 Apr 23.


Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. Epidemiological studies on the incidence of PD are important to better understand the risk factors for PD and determine the condition's natural history.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis examine the incidence of PD and its variation by age and gender.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for epidemiologic studies of PD from 2001 to 2014, as a previously published systematic review included studies published until 2001. Data were analyzed separately for age group and gender, and meta-regression was used to determine whether a significant difference was present between groups.

Results: Twenty-seven studies were included in the analysis. Meta-analysis of international studies showed rising incidence with age in both men and women. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the 80+ group, which may be explained by methodological differences between studies. While males had a higher incidence of PD in all age groups, this difference was only statistically significant for those in the age range 60-69 and 70-79 (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: PD incidence generally increases with age, although it may stabilize in those who are 80+.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors