Molecular Coupling of Histone Crotonylation and Active Transcription by AF9 YEATS Domain

Mol Cell. 2016 Apr 21;62(2):181-193. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2016.03.028.


Recognition of histone covalent modifications by chromatin-binding protein modules ("readers") constitutes a major mechanism for epigenetic regulation, typified by bromodomains that bind acetyllysine. Non-acetyl histone lysine acylations (e.g., crotonylation, butyrylation, propionylation) have been recently identified, but readers that prefer these acylations have not been characterized. Here we report that the AF9 YEATS domain displays selectively higher binding affinity for crotonyllysine over acetyllysine. Structural studies revealed an extended aromatic sandwiching cage with crotonyl specificity arising from π-aromatic and hydrophobic interactions between crotonyl and aromatic rings. These features are conserved among the YEATS, but not the bromodomains. Using a cell-based model, we showed that AF9 co-localizes with crotonylated histone H3 and positively regulates gene expression in a YEATS domain-dependent manner. Our studies define the evolutionarily conserved YEATS domain as a family of crotonyllysine readers and specifically demonstrate that the YEATS domain of AF9 directly links histone crotonylation to active transcription.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
  • Crotonates / metabolism*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Histones / chemistry
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Lysine
  • Mice
  • Models, Molecular
  • Mutation
  • Nuclear Proteins / chemistry
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Domains
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transcriptional Activation*
  • Transfection


  • BRD3 protein, human
  • Brd3 protein, mouse
  • Crotonates
  • Histones
  • MLLT3 protein, human
  • Mllt3 protein, mouse
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Lysine