Factors associated with poor outcomes among adults hospitalized for influenza in France: A three-year prospective multicenter study

J Clin Virol. 2016 Jun;79:68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2016.04.005. Epub 2016 Apr 12.


Background: Influenza is an important cause of serious illness and death, particularly in elderly and high-risk groups.

Objectives: Aim of this study was to identify factors associated with poor outcomes among adults hospitalized in France for laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza.

Study design: Patients hospitalized for influenza were identified in a prospective, multicenter study carried out in French hospitals during three consecutive influenza seasons (2012-2015). Influenza virus infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were compared according to the virus type and subtype. Risk factors for complications, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death were analyzed by backward stepwise logistic regression.

Results: The study population consisted of 566 patients, of whom 56% were older than 65 years and 82% had underlying chronic illnesses. Type A influenza viruses infected 422 patients (75%), including subtype H3N2 in 239 patients (57%). The prior vaccine coverage rate was 38%. Complications occurred in 255 patients (45%), consisting mainly of pneumonia (n=143, 30%) and respiratory failure (n=116, 20%). Eighty-three patients (15%) were admitted to an ICU, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 4% (n=21). Sixty-six patients (12%) received oseltamivir. Age over 65 years was the only identified risk factor for complications. Risk factors for ICU admission were an absence of vaccination, no oseltamivir administration before admission, pre-existing chronic respiratory disease, and current smoking. Age over 65 years and ICU admission were risk factors for death.

Conclusions: Older individuals and patients with underlying conditions are most at risk of influenza complications. Vaccination and early oseltamivir administration, both of which are recommended for these patients, appear to reduce ICU admissions.

Keywords: Adults; Antiviral; Hospitalisation; Influenza; Severe; Vaccination.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Comorbidity
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Hospitalization*
  • Humans
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / mortality*
  • Influenza, Human / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult