Evaluation of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in Cynomolgus monkeys treated with gentamicin

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 Jul 15;303:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.04.012. Epub 2016 Apr 19.


Most studies to evaluate kidney safety biomarkers have been performed in rats. This study was conducted in Cynomolgus monkeys in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in this species. Groups of 3 males were given daily intramuscular injections of gentamicin, a nephrotoxic agent known to produce lesions in proximal tubules, at dose-levels of 10, 25, or 50mg/kg/day for 10days. Blood and 16-h urine samples were collected on Days -7, -3, 2, 4, 7, and at the end of the dosing period. Several novel kidney safety biomarkers were evaluated, with single- and multiplex immunoassays and in immunoprecipitation-LC/MS assays, in parallel to histopathology and conventional clinical pathology parameters. Treatment with gentamicin induced a dose-dependent increase in kidney tubular cell degeneration/necrosis, ranging from minimal to mild severity at 10mg/kg/day, moderate at 25mg/kg/day, and to severe at 50mg/kg/day. The results showed that the novel urinary biomarkers, microalbumin, α1-microglobulin, clusterin, and osteopontin, together with the more traditional clinical pathology parameters, urinary total protein and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), were more sensitive than blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) to detect kidney injury in the monkeys given 10mg/kg/day gentamicin for 10days, a dose leading to an exposure which is slightly higher than the desired therapeutic exposure in clinics. Therefore, these urinary biomarkers represent non-invasive biomarkers of proximal tubule injury in Cynomolgus monkeys which may be potentially useful in humans.

Keywords: Cynomolgus monkeys; Gentamicin; Kidney; Safety biomarkers; Singleplex and multiplex assays.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylglucosaminidase / urine
  • Alanine Transaminase / blood
  • Alpha-Globulins / urine
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / blood
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / toxicity*
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Clusterin / urine
  • Creatine / blood
  • Creatine / urine
  • Gentamicins / blood
  • Gentamicins / pharmacokinetics
  • Gentamicins / toxicity*
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney Diseases / blood
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Kidney Diseases / pathology
  • Kidney Diseases / urine*
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Necrosis / chemically induced
  • Osteopontin / urine
  • Serum Albumin / analysis


  • Alpha-Globulins
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Clusterin
  • Gentamicins
  • Serum Albumin
  • alpha-1-microglobulin
  • Osteopontin
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase
  • Acetylglucosaminidase
  • Creatine