Considerations for a European animal welfare standard to evaluate adverse phenotypes in teleost fish

EMBO J. 2016 Jun 1;35(11):1151-4. doi: 10.15252/embj.201694448. Epub 2016 Apr 22.


The EU Directive on the use animals in research requires scientists to assess and document pain, distress or lasting harm of genetically modified animals. This article proposes a detailed protocol and guidelines for assessing adverse phenotypes in teleost fish, an important model organism for biomedical research.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Welfare*
  • Animals
  • Biomedical Research
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Europe
  • Fishes / genetics*
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Phenotype