Confocal Raman microscopy and multivariate statistical analysis for determination of different penetration abilities of caffeine and propylene glycol applied simultaneously in a mixture on porcine skin ex vivo

Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016 Jul;104:51-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.04.018. Epub 2016 Apr 21.


Propylene glycol is one of the known substances added in cosmetic formulations as a penetration enhancer. Recently, nanocrystals have been employed also to increase the skin penetration of active components. Caffeine is a component with many applications and its penetration into the epidermis is controversially discussed in the literature. In the present study, the penetration ability of two components - caffeine nanocrystals and propylene glycol, applied topically on porcine ear skin in the form of a gel, was investigated ex vivo using two confocal Raman microscopes operated at different excitation wavelengths (785nm and 633nm). Several depth profiles were acquired in the fingerprint region and different spectral ranges, i.e., 526-600cm(-1) and 810-880cm(-1) were chosen for independent analysis of caffeine and propylene glycol penetration into the skin, respectively. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) combined with Student's t-test were employed to calculate the maximum penetration depths of each substance (caffeine and propylene glycol). The results show that propylene glycol penetrates significantly deeper than caffeine (20.7-22.0μm versus 12.3-13.0μm) without any penetration enhancement effect on caffeine. The results confirm that different substances, even if applied onto the skin as a mixture, can penetrate differently. The penetration depths of caffeine and propylene glycol obtained using two different confocal Raman microscopes are comparable showing that both types of microscopes are well suited for such investigations and that multivariate statistical PCA-LDA methods combined with Student's t-test are very useful for analyzing the penetration of different substances into the skin.

Keywords: Epidermis; Multispeed penetration; Penetration enhancer; Propanediol; Stratum corneum; Stratum spinosum; Toxicity; Vibrational spectroscopy.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caffeine / administration & dosage*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Limit of Detection
  • Microscopy, Confocal / methods*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Propylene Glycol / administration & dosage*
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods*
  • Swine


  • Caffeine
  • Propylene Glycol