Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been rapidly accepted by global HIV policy and donor institutions as a highly valuable HIV prevention strategy given its cost-effectiveness, limited interactions with a health facility, and projected long-lasting benefits. Many southern African countries have incorporated VMMC into their national HIV prevention strategies. However, intensive VMMC promotion programs have met with limited success to date and many HIV researchers have voiced concerns. This commentary discusses reasons behind the less-than-desired public demand and suggests how inclusion of the traditional sector - traditional leaders, healers, and circumcisers - with their local knowledge, cultural expertise and social capital, particularly in the realm of social meanings ascribed to male circumcision, may improve the uptake of this HIV prevention strategy. We offer Lesotho and Swaziland as case studies of the integration of universal VMMC policies; these are countries with a shared HIV burden, yet contrasting contemporary socio-cultural practices of male circumcision. The similar hesitant responses expressed by these two countries towards VMMC remind us that the incorporation of any new or revised and revitalized public health strategy must be considered within unique historical, political, economic, and socio-cultural contexts.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Lesotho; Swaziland; male circumcision; traditional leaders.