Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) secrete type 2 cytokines, which protect against parasites but can also contribute to a variety of inflammatory airway diseases. We report here that interleukin 1β (IL-1β) directly activated human ILC2s and that IL-12 induced the conversion of these activated ILC2s into interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing ILC1s, which was reversed by IL-4. The plasticity of ILCs was manifested in diseased tissues of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), which displayed IL-12 or IL-4 signatures and the accumulation of ILC1s or ILC2s, respectively. Eosinophils were a major cellular source of IL-4, which revealed cross-talk between IL-5-producing ILC2s and IL-4-producing eosinophils. We propose that IL-12 and IL-4 govern ILC2 functional identity and that their imbalance results in the perpetuation of type 1 or type 2 inflammation.