Cereboost™, an American ginseng extract, improves cognitive function via up-regulation of choline acetyltransferase expression and neuroprotection

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Jul;78:53-8. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.04.006. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Abstract

In Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides induce the degeneration of presynaptic cholinergic system, in which decreased activity of enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is observed. Cereboost™, an extract of American ginseng extract, contains a high concentration of Rb1 ginsenoside which is a well-known ingredient improving human cognitive function. We investigated the effects of Cereboost™ on learning and memory function of mice challenged with an Aβ1-42 peptide and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Cereboost™ protected against Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity in F3.ChAT stem cells, and enhanced the ChAT gene expression. Aβ1-42 injection into the mouse brain impaired the cognitive function, which was recovered by oral administration of Cereboost™. In addition, Cereboost™ restored brain microtubule-associated protein 2 and synaptophysin as well as acetylcholine concentration. The results demonstrate that Cereboost™ administration recovered the cognitive function of AD model animals by enhancing acetylcholine level via ChAT gene expression and neuroprotection.

Keywords: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius); Amyloid-beta peptide; Cereboost™; Choline acetyltransferase; Cognitive function; Neuroprotection.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholine / metabolism*
  • Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / chemically induced
  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology
  • Alzheimer Disease / prevention & control*
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Animals
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects*
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Cell Line
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase / genetics
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism*
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Cognition / drug effects*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / metabolism
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism
  • Neuroprotective Agents / isolation & purification
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Panax / chemistry*
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Synaptophysin / metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • Transfection
  • Up-Regulation

Substances

  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Cereboost
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Mtap2 protein, mouse
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Plant Extracts
  • Synaptophysin
  • Syp protein, mouse
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-42)
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Ache protein, mouse
  • Acetylcholine