Kidney injury is a common clinical feature among liver transplantation (LT) candidates that heavily affects prognosis and complicates the surgical decision-making process. Up to 20% of patients undergoing LT demonstrate some degree of renal impairment, and 2% will benefit from a combined liver-kidney transplantation (LKT). We present a case-control study of all patients who underwent LKT and combined liver-dual kidney transplantation (LDKT) from November 2013 to March 2016. For the selection of LDKT candidates, a histological-based algorithm was applied: when evaluating extended criteria donors (ECDs), with any Remuzzi score between 4 and 7, we would consider performing a LDKT instead of a simple LKT. Study groups were similar for recipient variables. In the LDKT group, donor age, donor risk index, and donor body mass index were found to be significantly higher. Biopsies obtained from all pairs of kidney grafts in the LDKT group demonstrated the following Remuzzi scores: 4+4, 4+4, 7+1, 4+5. Despite longer operative times for the LDKT procedure, no differences were observed regarding the main investigated outcome parameters. Overall survival was 100% (LDKT) and 91% (LKT, P > 0.99). This is a preliminary experience which might indicate that LDKT is a safe, feasible, and resource-effective technique. The evaluation of a larger cohort, as well as the experience from other centers, would be needed to clearly identify its role in the ECD era. Liver Transplantation 23:28-34 2017 AASLD.
© 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.