Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Jun 1;163:141-52.
doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.013. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

The Effects of Oral D-Amphetamine on Impulsivity in Smoked and Intranasal Cocaine Users

Affiliations
Free PMC article

The Effects of Oral D-Amphetamine on Impulsivity in Smoked and Intranasal Cocaine Users

Stephanie Collins Reed et al. Drug Alcohol Depend. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Effective treatments for cocaine use disorders remain elusive. Two factors that may be related to treatment failures are route of cocaine used and impulsivity. Smoked cocaine users are more likely to have poorer treatment outcomes compared to intranasal cocaine users. Further, cocaine users are impulsive and impulsivity is associated with poor treatment outcomes. While stimulants are used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attenuate certain cocaine-related behaviors, few studies have comprehensively examined whether stimulants can reduce behavioral impulsivity in cocaine users, and none examined route of cocaine use as a factor.

Methods: The effects of immediate release oral d-amphetamine (AMPH) were examined in 34 cocaine users (13 intranasal, 21 smoked). Participants had three separate sessions where they were administered AMPH (0, 10, or 20mg) and completed behavioral measures of impulsivity and risk-taking and subjective measures of abuse liability.

Results: Smoked cocaine users were more impulsive on the Delayed Memory Task, the GoStop task and the Delay Discounting Task than intranasal cocaine users. Smoked cocaine users also reported more cocaine craving and negative mood than intranasal cocaine users. AMPH produced minimal increases on measures of abuse liability (e.g., Drug Liking).

Conclusions: Smoked cocaine users were more impulsive than intranasal cocaine users on measures of impulsivity that had a delay component. Additionally, although AMPH failed to attenuate impulsive responding, there was minimal evidence of abuse liability in cocaine users. These preliminary findings need to be confirmed in larger samples that control for route and duration of cocaine use.

Keywords: Abuse liability; Amphetamine; Cocaine users; Impulsivity; Route.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Peak Good Drug Effect and Drug Liking ratings on the DEQ and peak ratings of cocaine craving as a function of group and AMPH dose. * denotes a significant difference compared to 0 mg AMPH within each group (p ≤ 0.05). denotes a significant difference between groups (p ≤ 0.05). Error bars represent + 1 S.E.M.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Peak performance on the IMT, DMT, GoStop Task, and DDT as a function of group and AMPH dose. See Fig. 1 for details.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Peak systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and heart rate as a function of group and AMPH dose. See Fig. 1 for details.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles

Feedback