Sleep abnormalities associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiate use: a comprehensive review

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2016 Apr 26;11(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s13722-016-0056-7.


Sleep abnormalities are associated with acute and chronic use of addictive substances. Although sleep complaints associated with use and abstinence from addictive substances are widely recognized, familiarity with the underlying sleep abnormalities is often lacking, despite evidence that these sleep abnormalities may be recalcitrant and impede good outcomes. Substantial research has now characterized the abnormalities associated with acute and chronic use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates. This review summarizes this research and discusses the clinical implications of sleep abnormalities in the treatment of substance use disorders.

Keywords: Alcohol; Cannabis; Cocaine; Insomnia; Opiates; Sleep.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / complications
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / complications
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / classification
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use
  • Marijuana Abuse / complications
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / complications
  • Sleep Stages
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / drug therapy
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / etiology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications*


  • Hypnotics and Sedatives