Individual and Neighborhood Determinants of Late HIV Diagnosis Among Latinos, Florida, 2007-2011

J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 Aug;19(4):825-834. doi: 10.1007/s10903-016-0422-2.


The objective of this study was to examine individual and neighborhood determinants of late HIV diagnosis by gender and birthplace among Latinos. Florida HIV surveillance data for 2007-2011 were merged with American Community Survey data to estimate the odds of late HIV diagnosis (AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis). Of 5522 HIV-positive Latinos, 26.5 % were diagnosed late. The odds ratio (OR) for late diagnosis was 1.39 times higher for males than females [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.69]. Neighborhood-level factors associated with late diagnosis included residing in the 3 highest quartiles of neighborhood unemployment for males. The OR was 1.22 times higher for foreign- than US-born Latinos (95 % CI 1.07-1.40). Among foreign-born, residing in areas in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles of unemployment, in rural areas, and areas with <25 % Hispanic/Latino population were associated with late diagnosis. Population-based HIV testing campaigns may require tailoring to ensure that they effectively reach male Latinos in areas with high unemployment and foreign-born Latinos in rural and predominantly non-Latino areas.

Keywords: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; Foreign-born Latinos; Human immunodeficiency virus; Late diagnosis; Latinos.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Delayed Diagnosis / statistics & numerical data*
  • Emigrants and Immigrants / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Florida / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / ethnology*
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Young Adult