The current study presents a case of cluster of differentiation (CD)56+ myeloid sarcoma in a patient that initially presented with skin lesions, and provides evidence for the clinical and differential diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. The patient of the present case report was a 65-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with a six-month history of bilateral purple-red papules and nodules, which were present on the upper limbs of the patient and had spread over his whole body one month prior to admission to the hospital. Pathological examination demonstrated a diffuse infusion of primitive round cells at the papillary dermis and subcutaneous tissues. The infiltrated cells were 40-60 µm in diameter and morphologically identical. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the cells expressed myeloperoxidase, CD56, CD43 and T-cell intracytoplasmic antigen. In addition, several cells expressed CD34, and 90% of the cells expressed Ki67. While the majority of cells in myeloid sarcoma do not express CD56, the present case was a myeloid sarcoma that expressed CD56, which is extremely rare. The sarcoma in the present patient progressed rapidly, and the patient died eight months following the onset of disease. Clinicians should be aware of CD56+ myeloid sarcoma, which is easily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated. Consequently, myeloid sarcoma may have a high malignancy and poor outcome for patients.
Keywords: CD56; Ki67; granulocytic sarcoma; immunohistochemistry; myeloid sarcoma.