Mitochondrial remodeling: Rearranging, recycling, and reprogramming

Cell Calcium. 2016 Aug;60(2):88-101. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2016.04.006. Epub 2016 Apr 20.


Mitochondria are highly dynamic and responsive organelles that respond to environmental cues with fission and fusion. They undergo mitophagy and biogenesis, and are subject to extensive post-translational modifications. Calcium plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial functions. Mitochondria play a central role in metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, and generate ATP with effects on redox poise, oxidative stress, pH, and other metabolites including acetyl-CoA and NAD(+) which in turn have effects on chromatin remodeling. The complex interplay of mitochondria, cytosolic factors, and the nucleus ensure a well-coordinated response to environmental stresses.

Keywords: Biogenesis; Fission; Fusion; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial unfolded protein response; Mitophagy; Retrograde signaling.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Proteome / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Proteome
  • Reactive Oxygen Species