Mitochondria are highly dynamic and responsive organelles that respond to environmental cues with fission and fusion. They undergo mitophagy and biogenesis, and are subject to extensive post-translational modifications. Calcium plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial functions. Mitochondria play a central role in metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, and generate ATP with effects on redox poise, oxidative stress, pH, and other metabolites including acetyl-CoA and NAD(+) which in turn have effects on chromatin remodeling. The complex interplay of mitochondria, cytosolic factors, and the nucleus ensure a well-coordinated response to environmental stresses.
Keywords: Biogenesis; Fission; Fusion; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial unfolded protein response; Mitophagy; Retrograde signaling.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.