Human immunodeficiency virus-infected people discontinuing therapy experience a rebound in the virus level (hereafter, "rebound virus") from a persistent reservoir. We examined 10 samples from patients in AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5068 with rebound virus, using single-genome amplification and Primer ID deep sequencing, to assess env genetic diversity of the virus population. Most rebound-virus populations showed significant diversity. All env examined required high levels of CD4 for entry, consistent with selection of replication in CD4(+) T cells. These results indicate that most people discontinuing therapy release a diverse population of virus and that this released virus has entry features of virus selected for replication in CD4(+) T cells, rather than in myeloid cells.
Keywords: HIV-1; genetic diversity; rebound virus; reservoir; tropism.
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