Neurorestoration after stroke

Neurosurg Focus. 2016 May;40(5):E2. doi: 10.3171/2016.2.FOCUS15637.


Recent advancements in stem cell biology and neuromodulation have ushered in a battery of new neurorestorative therapies for ischemic stroke. While the understanding of stroke pathophysiology has matured, the ability to restore patients' quality of life remains inadequate. New therapeutic approaches, including cell transplantation and neurostimulation, focus on reestablishing the circuits disrupted by ischemia through multidimensional mechanisms to improve neuroplasticity and remodeling. The authors provide a broad overview of stroke pathophysiology and existing therapies to highlight the scientific and clinical implications of neurorestorative therapies for stroke.

Keywords: BCI = brain-computer interface; G-CSF = granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; MSC = mesenchymal stem cell; NPC = neural progenitor cell; NSC = neural stem cell; NT2N = Ntera2/D1 neuron-like; PSD-95 = postsynaptic density-95; RCT = randomized controlled trial; TMS = transcranial magnetic stimulation; brain-computer interface; exogenous stem cells; neuroplasticity; optogenetics; tDCS = transcranial direct current stimulation; tPA = tissue plasminogen activator.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Transplantation
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy
  • Humans
  • Neuronal Plasticity / physiology
  • Recovery of Function / physiology*
  • Stroke / physiopathology
  • Stroke / therapy*