Inducible (class 3) aldehyde dehydrogenase from rat hepatocellular carcinoma and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-treated liver: distant relationship to the class 1 and 2 enzymes from mammalian liver cytosol/mitochondria

Biochemistry. 1989 Feb 7;28(3):1160-7. doi: 10.1021/bi00429a034.


Peptides from rat liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (AIDH) induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) treatment match the AIDH structure from HTC rat hepatoma cells (HTC-AIDH) at all positions examined, indicating induction of the same gene product by two independent routes. This 452 amino acid residue, class 3 AIDH structure differs substantially from the 500-residue AIDH structures isolated from normal liver cytosol (class 1) and mitochondria (class 2). Despite a 29.8% identity in 429 overlapping amino acids vs the human class 1 enzyme (27.7% vs class 2), neither the N- nor C-termini coincide, and gaps are introduced to optimize the alignment. Two residues placed in the active site of human liver AIDH by chemical modification, Cys-302 and Glu-268, are conserved in class 3 AIDH as Cys-243 and Glu-209. Cys-243/302 is the only cysteine residue conserved in all known AIDH structures. Gly-245 and Gly-250 of class 1/2 AIDHs, fitting the patterns of glycine residues in coenzyme binding fold of other dehydrogenases, are also conserved. Otherwise, Cys-49, Cys-162, and Glu-487, to which functional importance has also been ascribed, are not retained in the class 3 structure. Overall, a high conservation of Gly, Pro, and Trp and similar patterns of predicted secondary structure indicate general conservation of tertiary structure, as noted with other distantly related proteins. Three exon boundaries from the human liver mitochondria AIDH gene directly correspond to the N-terminus of the rat class 3 protein and to two of the gaps in the alignment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / biosynthesis*
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cytosol / enzymology
  • Dioxins / pharmacology*
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / biosynthesis*
  • Isoenzymes / genetics
  • Kinetics
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / enzymology*
  • Mitochondria, Liver / enzymology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins / pharmacology*
  • Protein Conformation
  • Rats


  • Dioxins
  • Isoenzymes
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase