Background and objective: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues that leads to the destruction of bone and other connective tissues. Resveratrol and curcumin are plant-derived substances with biological properties that may have immunomodulatory properties. This study investigated the effect of continuous administration of resveratrol and curcumin and the association of resveratrol and curcumin on the progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.
Material and methods: Forty Wistar rats were assigned randomly to the following groups: group 1, experimental periodontitis + placebo (PL) (n = 10); group 2, experimental periodontitis + resveratrol (RSV) (n = 10); group 3, experimental periodontitis + curcumin (C) (n = 10); and group 4, experimental periodontitis + resveratrol + curcumin (COMBI) (n = 10). Periodontitis was induced in rats by tying a silk suture, as a ligature, around one of the first molars. Daily administration of the placebo solution, 10 mg/kg of resveratrol, 100 mg/kg of curcumin or 10 mg/kg of resveratrol plus 100 mg/kg of curcumin was carried out from day 0 to day 30. At the end of the relevant experimental periods, rats were killed and the specimens obtained were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss. Gingival tissues surrounding the first molar were collected for quantification of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) using a Luminex/MAGPIX assay.
Results: Intergroup comparisons of the morphometric outcomes revealed higher bone-loss values in the PL group (p < 0.05) when compared with RSV, C and COMBI groups. There was no difference in bone-loss values among RSV, C and COMBI groups (p > 0.05). The immunoenzymatic assay of the gingival tissue showed a lower concentration of IL-1β in the COMBI group in comparison with the PL group (p < 0.05). Higher values of IL-4 were demonstrated in groups RSV, C and COMBI in comparison with the PL group (p < 0.05). Only RSV caused a reduction in the levels of IFN-γ (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the concentration of TNF-α amongst the four groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: Resveratrol and curcumin are capable of reducing alveolar bone loss in an animal model of periodontitis. This occurred when these agents were added singly or in combination with one another, but there did not appear to be either synergistic or additive effects.
Keywords: alveolar bone loss; curcumin; periodontitis; resveratrol.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.