Current and future direction in the management of scleroderma

Arch Dermatol Res. 2016 Sep;308(7):461-71. doi: 10.1007/s00403-016-1647-6. Epub 2016 Apr 30.


Scleroderma is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology. As more information is gained about the underlying mechanisms and the improved classifications of scleroderma subtypes, treatments can be better personalized. Improving scleroderma patients' early diagnosis before end organ manifestations occur should improve clinical trial design and outcomes. Two recently FDA-approved antifibrotics for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be effective treatments in patients with pulmonary fibrosis secondary to scleroderma after further investigation. The potential impact of Nanobiotechnology in improving the efficacy and safety of existing antifibrotics and immunomodulators might present an exciting new approach in the management of scleroderma.

Keywords: Autoimmunity; Diagnosis; Fibrosis; Immunosuppressant; Nano targeting; Scleroderma; Vasculopathy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Fibrosis / drug therapy
  • Fibrosis / pathology*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis / drug therapy
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis / pathology
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Scleroderma, Localized / drug therapy*
  • Scleroderma, Localized / pathology*
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / drug therapy*
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / pathology*


  • Autoantibodies