Cisplatin and oxaliplatin surface contamination in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospital wards during attendance of HIPEC patients

Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016 Aug;89(6):991-6. doi: 10.1007/s00420-016-1137-3. Epub 2016 May 3.


Purpose: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate surface contamination by platinum drugs in the environment of patients in ICUs and wards treated by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

Methods: The monitoring included 12 HIPEC treatments from four hospitals during the following 3 days after perfusion. A total of 33 urine and 33 drainage fluids from HIPEC patients and 160 wipe samples from several surfaces (urine/drainage bags, floors, gloves) were taken during the study period.

Results: In urine, the highest platinum concentrations were measured on the first day after perfusion. Median platinum concentrations were 1260 ng/ml for patients after cisplatin perfusion and 11,000 ng/ml for oxaliplatin treatment. Concentrations decreased until day three to 413 ng/ml cisplatin and 529 ng/ml oxaliplatin, respectively. In drainage liquids, platinum concentrations were generally lower. Platinum concentrations from surfaces of bags and floors ranged from 0.01 to 439 pg/cm(2) (median: urine bag 2.77 pg/cm(2), drainage bag 0.22 pg/cm(2), floor left 0.14 pg/cm(2), floor right 0.24 pg/cm(2)), with the highest contamination found on the outer surface of the urine bags. Samples from nurses' protective gloves ranged between 0.03 and 12 pg/cm(2) (median: 0.2 pg/cm(2)).

Conclusions: High platinum-drug concentrations in urine and drainage liquids are the main source of contamination. Therefore, safe handling of these liquids is the best way to avoid cross-contamination on surfaces in wards and ICUs. Our results show that it is possible to take care of HIPEC patients without high contaminations during the first 3 days.

Keywords: Contamination; HIPEC; Intensive care; Platinum; Wards.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / analysis*
  • Cisplatin / analysis*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Gloves, Protective
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units*
  • Occupational Exposure / analysis
  • Organoplatinum Compounds / analysis*
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Patients' Rooms*
  • Pilot Projects


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Organoplatinum Compounds
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Cisplatin