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, 58 (1), 27

Reporting the National Antimicrobial Consumption in Danish Pigs: Influence of Assigned Daily Dosage Values and Population Measurement

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Reporting the National Antimicrobial Consumption in Danish Pigs: Influence of Assigned Daily Dosage Values and Population Measurement

Nana Dupont et al. Acta Vet Scand.

Abstract

Background: Transparent calculation methods are crucial when investigating trends in antimicrobial consumption over time and between populations. Until 2011, one single standardized method was applied when quantifying the Danish pig antimicrobial consumption with the unit "Animal Daily Dose" (ADD). However, two new methods for assigning values for ADDs have recently emerged, one implemented by DANMAP, responsible for publishing annual reports on antimicrobial consumption, and one by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA), responsible for the Yellow Card initiative. In addition to new ADD assignment methods, Denmark has also experienced a shift in the production pattern, towards a larger export of live pigs. The aims of this paper were to (1) describe previous and current ADD assignment methods used by the major Danish institutions and (2) to illustrate how ADD assignment method and choice of population and population measurement affect the calculated national antimicrobial consumption in pigs (2007-2013).

Results: The old VetStat ADD-values were based on SPCs in contrast to the new ADD-values, which were based on active compound, concentration and administration route. The new ADD-values stated by both DANMAP and DVFA were only identical for 48 % of antimicrobial products approved for use in pigs. From 2007 to 2013, the total number of ADDs per year increased by 9 % when using the new DVFA ADD-values, but decreased by 2 and 7 % when using the new DANMAP ADD-values or the old VetStat ADD-values, respectively. Through 2007 to 2013, the production of pigs increased from 26.1 million pigs per year with 18 % exported live to 28.7 million with 34 % exported live. In the same time span, the annual pig antimicrobial consumption increased by 22.2 %, when calculated using the new DVFA ADD-values and pigs slaughtered per year as population measurement (13.0 ADDs/pig/year to 15.9 ADDs/pig/year). However, when based on the old VetStat ADD values and pigs produced per year (including live export), a 10.9 % decrease was seen (10.6 ADDs/pig/year to 9.4 ADDs/pig/year).

Conclusion: The findings of this paper clearly highlight that calculated national antimicrobial consumption is highly affected by chosen population measurement and the applied ADD-values.

Keywords: Animal daily dose; Antibiotics; Antimicrobials; Pigs; Surveillance.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
The annual Danish pig population. From 2007 to 2013 according to (1) Statistics Denmark’s annual summer survey, (2) the Central Husbandry Register on the 31st of December in the corresponding year, (3) pigs slaughtered in Denmark per year and (4) pigs produced in Denmark per year
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Annual antimicrobial consumption using four different measurements for the pig population. Number of Animal Daily Doses (ADDs)/pig/year calculated using the new DVFA ADD-values and the following four measurements for the pig population: (1) Statistics Denmark’s annual summer survey (SD), (2) number of pigs registered in the Central Husbandry Register on the 31st of December in the corresponding year (CHR), (3) pigs slaughtered in Denmark per year (SL-year) and (4) pigs produced in Denmark per year (PROD-year)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Annual antimicrobial consumption using three different sets of ADD-values. Number of Animal Daily Doses (ADDs)/pig/year calculated using PROD-year as population measurement and the following three sets of ADD-values: (a) the old VetStat ADD-values used in the Yellow Card initiative until the 29th of November 2014, (b) the DANMAP ADD-values used in the 2012 and 2013 DANMAP reports and (c) the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration’s ADD-values used in the Yellow Card initiative from the 30th of December 2014 and onwards. 1Pigs produced adjusted for an assumed 3.8 % mortality in exported growers
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Annual antimicrobial consumption using four different population measurements and three different sets of ADD-values. Average annual antimicrobial consumption per pig calculated as number of Animal Daily Doses (ADDs)/pig using four different pig population measurements: (1) number of pigs according to Statistics Denmark, (2) number of pigs according to the Central Husbandry Register, (3) pigs slaughtered in Denmark per year and (4) pigs produced in Denmark per year and using three different sets of ADD-values: (a) the old VetStat ADD-values used in the Yellow Card initiative until the 29th of November 2014, (b) the DANMAP ADD-values used in the 2012 and 2013 DANMAP reports and (c) the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration’s ADD-values used in the Yellow Card initiative from the 30th of December 2014 and onwards. 1Pigs produced adjusted for an assumed 3.8 % mortality in exported growers

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