Background: The C3 complement component (C3c) is increasingly recognized as a cardiometabolic risk factor, but how it is affected after weight loss through gastric bypass is a question yet to be answered.
Methods: A total of 66 obese patients underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass. Anthropometric parameters, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, liver enzymes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and C3c levels were evaluated at baseline and at 1 and 5 years post-surgery.
Results: All anthropometric and biochemical parameters improved significantly after surgery, although a deterioration was detected with respect to the percentage of excess of weight loss, insulin, TC, LDLc, and lactate dehydrogenase 5 years post-surgery. Despite this, a remission rate of 84 % was observed in the presence of metabolic syndrome after 5 years follow-up. hsCRP and C3c were reduced significantly after surgery and maintained throughout the experimental period. In addition, C3c was correlated with BMI and insulin at all time points. The multivariate regression model, in which C3c was a dependent variable, revealed that aspartate aminotransferase and BMI were independent variables at baseline, alkaline phosphatase and insulin were independent at 1 year post-surgery, and insulin, BMI, and TC were independent at 5 years post-surgery.
Conclusions: C3c may be a marker of the chronic inflammatory process underlying insulin resistance. Its association with BMI and liver enzymes supports a major role in metabolic activity, although future research is needed to clarify the nature of the molecular mechanisms involved and the physiological significance of these findings.
Keywords: C3c; Gastric bypass; Humans; Insulin resistance; Long term.