Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral-based regimens for hepatitis C treatment: the French case

J Viral Hepat. 2016 Oct;23(10):767-79. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12546. Epub 2016 May 4.


We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and the budget impact of new DAA-based regimen use in France. A Markov model simulated chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment interventions with IFN-based and IFN-free regimens at stage of fibrosis ≥F3, ≥F2 or regardless of fibrosis stage, and treatment either with the least or the most expensive combination. It estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). It also assessed the budget impact over 5 years of treating all CHC-screened patients, regardless of fibrosis, assuming ≤20 000 patients treated/year and priority to ≥F3. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. For genotypes (G) 1-4, the initiation of IFN-free regardless of fibrosis was a cost-effective strategy compared to prior standard of care (SOC) initiated at stage F2: €40 400-88 300/QALY gained in G1; similar results were obtained for patients infected with G4. Considering G2-3, the most cost-effective strategy was IFN-based regimens regardless of fibrosis compared to prior SOC initiated at stage F2: €21 300 and €19 400/QALY gained, respectively; the strategy with IFN-free regimens being more effective but not cost-effective at current costs. The budget impact of treating all CHC-screened patients over 5 years would range between 3.5 and 7.2 billion €, depending on whether one considers the least or the most expensive combination of new DAAs and whether one treats G2-3 with IFN-based or IFN-free new DAAs. In France, treatment initiation with new DDAs regardless of fibrosis stage is cost-effective, but would add 3.5-7.2 billion € to an already overburdened medical care system.

Keywords: budget impact analysis; chronic hepatitis C; cohort Markov model; cost-effectiveness analysis; interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antiviral Agents / economics*
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • France
  • Genotype
  • Hepacivirus / classification
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Protease Inhibitors / economics*
  • Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Young Adult


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Protease Inhibitors