Dietary Protein, Metabolism, and Aging

Annu Rev Biochem. 2016 Jun 2;85:5-34. doi: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014422. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Abstract

Dietary restriction (DR), a moderate reduction in food intake, improves health during aging and extends life span across multiple species. Specific nutrients, rather than overall calories, mediate the effects of DR, with protein and specific amino acids (AAs) playing a key role. Modulations of single dietary AAs affect traits including growth, reproduction, physiology, health, and longevity in animals. Epidemiological data in humans also link the quality and quantity of dietary proteins to long-term health. Intricate nutrient-sensing pathways fine tune the metabolic responses to dietary AAs in a highly conserved manner. In turn, these metabolic responses can affect the onset of insulin resistance, obesity, neurodegenerative disease, and other age-related diseases. In this review we discuss how AA requirements are shaped and how ingested AAs regulate a spectrum of homeostatic processes. Finally, we highlight the resulting opportunity to develop nutritional strategies to improve human health during aging.

Keywords: aging; anabolism; dietary restriction; macronutrients; nutrient-sensing signaling; protein and amino acid requirement.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / genetics*
  • Aging / metabolism
  • Amino Acids / administration & dosage
  • Amino Acids / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Caloric Restriction
  • Diet, Protein-Restricted / methods*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / metabolism*
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 / genetics
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Homeostasis / genetics
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / genetics
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / pathology
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / prevention & control
  • Obesity / genetics
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity / pathology
  • Obesity / prevention & control
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proteostasis Deficiencies / genetics
  • Proteostasis Deficiencies / metabolism
  • Proteostasis Deficiencies / pathology
  • Proteostasis Deficiencies / prevention & control
  • Signal Transduction
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism

Substances

  • Amino Acids
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • EIF2AK4 protein, human
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases