Psychometric properties of the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS)

Psychol Assess. 2017 Feb;29(2):158-171. doi: 10.1037/pas0000326. Epub 2016 May 5.


The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS; Van der Does, 2002a) is a self-report measure of cognitive reactivity (CR) to sad mood. The LEIDS and its revised version, LEIDS-R (Van der Does & Williams, 2003), reliably distinguish between depression-vulnerable and healthy populations. They also correlate with other markers of depression vulnerability, but little is known about the other psychometric properties. Our aim was to examine the factor structure and validity of the LEIDS-R. We used data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; N = 1,696) and a student sample (N = 811) for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA, respectively). CFA showed that model fit of the 6-factor structure was satisfactory in the NESDA sample, but some factors were highly correlated. After removing 4 poor items, EFA yielded an alternative 5-factor structure and could not replicate the original 6-factor model. Testing for measurement invariance across recruitment groups of NESDA showed support for strong invariance. Due to high interfactor correlations, a bifactor model with 1 general factor and 5 specific factors was fitted in 2 samples. This model supported use of a general factor, but high factor loadings in specific factors supported retaining a 5-subscale structure. Higher scores on the general factor were associated with a history of depression, especially in participants with a history of comorbid anxiety. We concluded that the LEIDS-R has good psychometric properties. A modified version, LEIDS-RR, comprised of 5 subscales and a total CR score, is recommended for future research. One of the subscales is suitable as a short form. (PsycINFO Database Record

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anxiety / psychology*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology*
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Report
  • Young Adult